Rabu, 20 Agustus 2014

All About The process of making an Audio CD

What Is Mastering?
You’ve poured your heart and soul into your music. It deserves that huge sound you’ve been dreaming about.
The mastering engineers at the SoundLAB at Disc Makers can give your music the soaring highs and booming lows it needs to compete against all the other releases out there.
So what is mastering? Every major label release is mastered to prepare it for radio play and retail sale. The reason? In the studio you record one song at a time, resulting in songs that all peak at different levels and have different EQs. A mastering engineer can unify your album with skillful use of EQ, gain, and compression to give it a consistent sound from track to track. This process also allows the mastering engineer to pump up the volume of your overall album so it’s as hot as can be and make it sound unbelievable.
With music mastering from the SoundLAB you can get the professional sound you want at a fraction of the cost. You’ll get the same exact treatment that perfectionists such as Eminem, The Roots, and Jason Newsted of Metallica fame have chosen. All for as low as $99 a song.
A fresh pair of ears can be the difference between a good-sounding CD and a great one. A real advantage of audio post production is that an unbiased sound professional has the opportunity to evaluate your master and determine how to get the most out of your production. After you’ve spent weeks or even months in a recording studiolistening to your CD over and over again, a fresh pair of ears of one of our mastering engineers can put the project into perspective for you, and let you know whether or not your CD will benefit from audio post production. After all, you only have one chance to make your music sound its best. The choice is up to you.
To improve your recording the mastering engineer can:
·        Raise the overall level.
·        Even out song levels and EQ individual tracks for cohesion.
·        Correct minor mix deficiencies with equalization.
·        Enhance flow by changing the space between tracks.
·        Eliminate noises between tracks.
·        Make your music sound great on any sound system.
·        Add your ISRC codes.
·        Add CD-Text information (Artist, Title, and Track Names that can be displayed by some CD players).
Making a CD generally involves four steps:
Recording.
This is the process of capturing your performance onto a physical medium like tape or a computer’s hard disk.
Mixing.
This is the process of blending together multiple recorded tracks using a mixing console; the usual result is a two-channel, stereo performance.
Mastering.
In this phase, your audio recording is balanced, equalized, and enhanced so your finished product will be both more musical and more competitive in the marketplace.
Replication.
In this final step, your digital audio master is transferred to a glass master and thousands of copies are made.
If you’re not mastering your audio recording, you are leaving out what could be a crucial step in the making of your CD. Your master is the template for thousands of your CDs to be produced for commercial release. CD mastering enables your recording to faithfully reproduce your vision, making it the most musical and commercially competitive it can be, by bridging the technological gap between the artist’s recording equipment and the listener’s stereo system. CD mastering can make a huge difference in the competitiveness and musical value of your product – and it is also the greatest bargain in the entire workflow of making a CD.
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Those who have looked into professional CD manufacturing, you could not have failed to come across the term “Glass Mastering.”  We have been pressing CDs for decades now, but glass mastering still seems to be the most misunderstood phrase in the industry. To be honest it is not only the novice who is confused, many music industry long timers still only have a vague idea of what the process involves. In this blog I hope to dispel the mystery that surrounds the glass mastering process. If you are looking for detailed technical specifications on the process you may have to look elsewhere, this post is only going to cover the basic process in order to keep it short.

“What is glass mastering?”

Glass mastering is used to describe the process of transferring data from a CD/DVD Master to a metal stamper that is used to”press” the discs.


“So why is it called glass mastering?”

The first stage of Glass Mastering is to etch the 0′s and 1′s that make up the data on the master on to a piece of photosensitive film that has a glass disc as the substrate (base). This is done by a machine called a Laser Beam Recorder, this is a huge and highly accurate  version of the CD recorder in your computer. This glass disc with the information etched onto the film is then sent to galvanic processing to create a metal version, a stamper, of the information recorded on the photosensitive film.

“Why is it made of glass?”

The reason for using glass is that it is possible to get glass polished to a very smooth surface. This is vitallas any imperfections in the base will cause errors in the  CD manufacturing process. It is important to note that at every stage of making the stamper, each part is checked against the original CD master to ensure that it is an exact clone.

“What happens to the glass master after you make the stamper?”

After galvanic processing when we have a stamper, the glass substrate is washed down and re-used to make other stampers.

“As I have paid for glass mastering, can I keep the glass master?”

Afraid not, as we re-use the glass substrate to make other stampers. It would be a bit like ordering a cup of coffee from a cafe and then asking to keep the kettle that boiled the water.

“Can I keep the stamper?”

Generally speaking, no. The stamper contains nickel, this is a valuable material, and once we are finished with the stamper it is melted down and re-used. Beside this it would not be of much use to you, all the factory’s I know of would not be happy using a stamper that has been glass mastered by another CD pressing plant. In most cases the stampers are incompatible with the machines used in other plants. And due to the large amount of quality checks made throughout the manufacturing process the pressing plants prefer to work from their own stampers.

“How long do you keep the stamper, what if I want to re-press my CD?”

All factory’s retain the stamper for different periods of time for future re-presses. Most will keep the stamper for at least 3 years from the date of the last pressing and some will hold it up to 7 years. However these days pressing plants will keep a digital copy of the master stored on hard disc, so if after this time you want a re-press and they no longer have a stamper they can re-glass master the project.

“But my mastering studio has given me a glass master, why do I have to pay for glass mastering”

This is a common misconception. Mastering studios create “CD masters” and not  “Glass Masters”, it is the CD master given to you by your mastering studio that is used to create the glass master.

“Can you send my CD master back to me after you have made the stamper?”

Of course, this is your master, and once we have made the stamper and kept a copy of your CD master on hard disc, we no longer require the original master. One thing I will say that if you are looking to keep a safety copy of your disc, I would recommend keeping a factory pressed copy of the CD in a safe place. These are less likely to degrade over time, and will generally have lower errors compared to a CD-R master.

“Is it the glass mastering process that makes pressed CD’s better than CD-R duplication?”

Not quite, however it is the meticulous attention to detail in the glass mastering process that sets the stage for high quality CD pressing. There is much more to it than creating a high quality stamper, the two types of discs differ in many physical ways as well. To list all the differences is beyond the scope of this post, and it is an issue I would like to devote a an entire future post to. At this point I will just say the two formats are quite different in many ways, and CD duplication is not to be confused with high quality CD manufacturing.
So essentially that is a basic overview of glass mastering for CD manufacturing. Some of the points I have made may not apply to all CD pressing plants, so if you are not using Pure Music to manufacture your CD, I would check with your supplier directly with regard to how long they will keep the stamper and if they hold a version on hard disc for the future.
I hope you have enjoyed this post, and as always, if you have any questions regarding this article, feel free to drop me a line in the comments section, and I will do my best to give you an answer.
Both CD and DVD glass mastering require a laser beam recorder whereby a laser is used to expose minute areas of a photo-resist layer on top of a rotating glass master disc. The lengths and spacing of these areas is defined by the data to be stored on the disc. These areas are then developed to form pits and coated in a thin layer of nickel, on which a nickel Father is grown using an electroforming process. A Mother is then grown from the Father and the stampers grown from the Mother. The premastered data for the CD to be mastered is used as the input data during the glass mastering process. This process has several steps listed below.
Mastering of CDs and DVDs is a complex process carried out in a class 1,000 clean room. Operators wear special clothing including face masks and footwear to minimise particles that could affect the quality of stampers and therefore of pressed discs.
There are differences when mastering DVDs compared with CDs, mainly due to the smaller geometries and tighter specifications.
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source:

Rabu, 06 Agustus 2014

Firefox OS v1.3



Review Firefox OS 
Version 1.3
update maret 2016: version 2.2

Firefox OS merupakan sistem operasi yang berbasis Linux Open-Source dan memprioritaskan HTML5. OS ini dibuat oleh Mozilla yang cukup terkenal dengan Internet Browsingnya. Firefox OS ini sekilas terlihat melakukan pendekatan yang lebih ke Android dibanding lainnya (ios, wp, bb10, webos, dll). Salah satu contoh adalah penggunaan Custom Rom dan Rooting, juga interface yang mirip gaya Android. Startupnya sangat cepat, lebih cepat dari flagship android terkenal, ios, ataupun WP , padahal spec devicenya lebih rendah dari mereka saat percobaan ku. Mungkin karena Firefox OS menggunakan HTML5 sebagai prioritas utamanya, sehingga dalamnya terkesan simple, alhasil loading jadi cepat. 

UI (Interface)

    
contoh interface di Firefox OS v2.x (sudah gaya scroll vertikal), berubah dari versi 1.x (gaya slide kiri-kanan/horizontal) yang contoh gambarnya ada di paling atas halaman ini.

Interface design Firefox masih sama dengan yang lain yang umum (ios, android, BB10, dll) dimana terdapat icon-icon aplikasi di desktop/homescreen , tertera nama aplikasi dibawah icon tersebut, dan adanya wallpaper sebagai background. Lock Screen memiliki pilihan slide kiri untuk launch kamera, dan slide kanan untuk unlock screen.
Halaman paling kiri dari desktop/HomeScreen terdapat semacam search bar pemanent diatas, tapi tujuannya bukan seperti widget google search di Android, melainkan semacam mencari app di Firefox Marketplace (nama market/app storenya Firefox). Aplikasi Firefox OS masih sangat sedikit, dan terbagi menjadi 2 jenis, yang satu seperti Web App, dimana ibaratnya mirip shortcut ke suatu web, terus di Re-arrange view nya agar fit atau pas ke screen device firefox os (jadi seolah-olah macem app biasa gitu), sehingga biasa app jenis ini tidak memiliki ukuran dan umumnya memerlukan internet connection (contoh web app adalah Youtube, Facebook, dll). Yang kedua adalah app dalam arti sebenarnya, tidak perlu internet (offline) dan memiliki ukuran beberapa mb, biasa app kedua ini berjenis seperti game-game (CutTheRope, dll). Tentu saja selain kedua jenis app itu terdapat aplikasi bawaan, yang biasa pengguna Firefox OS sebut bawaan standar nya Gecko dan Gaia , istilahnya menggunakan kode web HTML5 untuk membuat sebuah interface untuk ponsel dan aplikasi utama yang berhubungan dengan sebuah phone seperti umumnya, sehingga nantinya akan memiliki app standar phone seperti dialer, sms, email, calendar, camera, radio, clock, gallery, music, video, dll.

Market / Application Store

Application store nya Firefox OS disebut Firefox Marketplace, dan bisa di akses di Firefox Browser versi desktop ataupun mobile, jadi jika Anda ingin melihat-lihat bisa tes dari Firefox browser, jumlahnya masih terbatas (jangan banding dengan OS yang sudah lama melintang buana). Untuk uninstall app bisa dengan 2 cara, pertama dari desktop tahan salah satu icon dan tekan tombol x, kedua di Setting > App Permissions.
Bagian App Permissions selain untuk uninstall, juga untuk melihat aplikasi yang kita install meminta permisi akses apa saja.

Interface Firefox marketplace terdapat pilihan Popular, New, Categories, dan tentu saja Search bar.
Beberapa aplikasi terkenal adalah Cut The Rope, Line Messenger, OpenWapp (whatsapp client), Telegram, Connect A2 (whatsapp client), Bing Maps, HERE maps, Loqui IM (multi IM), SoundCloud, Box, Flappy Birds, PicsArt, PhotoGrid, PhotoFunia, WordPress, Pinterest, Candy Crush, Slice Fruits, dan Pac-Man.
Sisanya seperti Facebook, Twitter, Youtube adalah Web-app yang dibuat seperti app asli. 
Oh iya, File Manager tidak ada secara bawaan, jadi harus download aplikasinya.
Contoh Folder Smart Collection, setelah buat ini baru bisa manual add icon app lain ke dalam folder ini

contoh webapp yang dibuat mirip jadi native app


Fungsi-fungsi tambahan:
  • untuk Screenshot , pada versi 1.x menggunakan tombol power + home, sedangkan versi 2.x menggunakan tombol power + volume down.
  • ada Power Save Mode, bisa di set Auto on disaat battery sisa 5%,15%, atau 25%
  • selain icon app di homescreen, terdapat Smart Collection, semacam folder berisi icon-icon web app berdasarkan kategori yang kita pilih/mau
  • ada fitur Wi-Fi Sleep, yang akan automatic turn off Wi-Fi during sleep untuk hemat battery.
  • Internet Sharing dengan 2 pilihan, dengan Hotspot ataupun USB Tethering 
  • Setiap membuka sebuah website, kita bisa "add to home screen" (membuat icon shortcut)
  • USB Storage on/off, fungsinya jika off maka block transfer data HP ke komputer, jadi untuk proteksi. Jika On, baru bisa transfer data

Notification Panel:

terletak diatas screen seperti Mobile OS lain. Selain notification dan info tanggal, battery, waktu, dan sinyal, terdapat tombol Wi-Fi, Airplane Mode, Bluetooth, dan Setting. Yang agak unik adalah adanya informasi Data Alert/Usage (internet) , hal ini tidak saya temukan di OS lain. Tidal lupa ada tombol Clear All untuk menghapus semua notification message .

Setting:
dibagian Setting terdapat yang umum seperti Airplane Mode, Geolocation, Wi-Fi, Call setting, Message Setting, Cellular & Data , Bluetooth, Internet Sharing, Sound, Display, HomeScreen, Search (memilih search engine antara Bing, Google, Yahoo, DuckDuckGo), Navigation (edge swipe on/off), Notification (show on lock screen on/off), Date & Time, Language, Keyboards, Firefox Accounts, Find My Devices , Screen Lock (cuma ada pilih on/off dan apakah mau menggunakan Passcode) , SIM security, App Permissions, Do Not Track, Browsing Privacy, USB Storage , Media Storage, Application Storage, Device Information, Downloads, Battery, Accessibility, Developer , dan yang terakhir menu Help.

Display:
Cuma ada pilihan Lock Orientation (mau auto rotate atau tidak), Ganti wallpaper, Adjust brightness automatically, set Brightness layar, dan Screen Timeout.

Gallery:
Gallery pada Firefox OS di urut berdasarkan waktu (bulan) , tidak ada pilihan berdasarkan Album/Folder. Saat open foto ada pilihan Edit, Share, Information, dan Delete. Information yang tertera adalah ukuran, jenis gambar, waktu pengambilan, dan resolusi. Sedangkan Share ada pilihan Email, Wallpaper, Messages, Bluetooth. Untuk Edit ada pilihan Exposure, Crop, Filters, Auto Enhance.

Multitask:
Screen multitask diakses dengan menahan tombol Home , akan ada vibrasi kecil , kemudian di screen multitask terlihat ada kotak-kotak gambar (card preview) aplikasi yang kita buka, kita bisa menutup atau membuang aplikasi yang sedang di background ini dengan cara menekan tombol X ataupun slide ke atas.

Keyboard Setting:
ada pilihan Vibration on/off, Click Sound, Auto Correction, Word Suggestion, dan dibagian Handwriting ada pilihan Stroke Width dan Response Speed . Saya belum pernah mencoba menu Handwriting nya.
Keyboard bisa dipasang add-on seperti Emoji Keyboard(biarpun saat saya tes masih bug emojinya, buat phone jadi sering reboot sendiri). 

Browsing:
Homepage nya terdapat Top Sites (random dari history atau site yg paling sering dikunjungi), fitur New Private Windows, dan History. Juga ada tombol Multi-Tab. Untuk Menu Option/Setting browser sangat simple, disini hanya memiliki pilihan New Windows,New Private Window, Show Windows, Add to home screen, dan Share .
Tidak ada fitur bookmark atau Favorite.


(+) Kelebihan:
  • Alternative OS buat yang bosen dengan Android dan iOS
  • Fast Startup, lebih cepat dari android, ios, wp, bb10, dll
  • Hemat battery, lebih hemat dari android, ios, wp, bb10, dll (sangat hemat, u wont believe it)
  • Bandwith usage info ada di notification tray, sangat praktis dan mudah dilihat
  • bisa pindah app yang lagi aktif di multitask tanpa harus keluar dari app, cukup geser dari tepi screen ke arah dalam screen (Edge Gesture harus di On kan dulu melalui developer setting)
  • Smart Collection feature, semacam folder dengan automatic kumpulan Web App recommendation
  • Bisa Feedback ke Firefox untuk improve OS, jadi kita sangat dihargai.
  • Bisa Rooting dan menggunakan Cusrom seperti Android (open source)
  • Native App ga ada iklan seperti yang umum terjadi di WP
  • Ringan, tidak butuh spec besar seperti Android, hemat memory RAM untuk multitask
  • menggunakan non stock rom seperti open source Boot 2 Gecko , masih bisa software update, tidak seperti Android yang flash cusrom ataupun iOS yang sudah di JB (iOS kalo update akan kembali ke stock unjailbreak dan Android harus manual karena software update ga jalan)
  • Sangat Simple dan Easy to Use
(-) Kekurangan (sebagian sudah di fixed pada versi 2.x):
  • Tidak ada nya copy-paste (telah di tambah pada versi 2.2, lihat dibawah untuk lebih jelasnya)
  • Minim aplikasi
  • Bug pada Line messenger: tidak bisa save photo
  • Bug : kadang tombol power ga responsive untuk screen on/off (mungkin juga saya mendapat device yang hardwarenya bermasalah)
  • tidak bisa ganti gambar di lock screen 
  • Line tidak bisa emoji
  • Ga ada settingan Camera
  • pas Scrolling page screen, not totally smooth, ada sedikit mili-second lag, kira-kira 0.1 detik, kalo di video ga bakal nampak soalnya mendekati smooth  
  • Auto rotate screen agak lag
  • Bug : kirim file besar di Line sering gagal
  • Line masih banyak bug, seperti tombol send atau tombol lain yang agak ujung/tepi ga akurat, trus keyboard kadang ketik lain, trus mau send tapi harus tutup keyboard dulu 
  • Text box tidak bisa scroll keatas
  • Ga ada tombol fisik back button, sedangkan di beberapa screen/halaman app tidak ada pilihan back , alhasil harus keluar dulu 
  • Firefox browser tidak memiliki banyak feature/setting seperti di platform OS lain
  • Screen time minimal cuma bisa 1 menit
  • Keyboard bug; tidak bisa ketik Angka/huruf, trus Spasi trus Titik, nanti otomatis spasinya hilang.
  • Keyboard bug; tidak bisa tekan tombol send langsung, harus tutup keyboard dulu
  • Munculin keyboard masih kurang smooth
  • Fake connection signal status, koneksi bermasalah tetapi seolah-olah masih full bar 
  • akurasi terhadap jempol kurang
  • Keyboard ga bisa diganti ke 3rd party
  • Sebagian app hanyalah Web App
  • Terkadang Phone Firmware update yang ga sekaligus, jadi harus beberapa kali reboot
  • Tidak bisa buat folder tanpa Smart Collection 
  • Ga bisa off kan Vibrate pada tombol Home
  • Lock Screen ga bisa dikasih Passcode/Password
  • Line ga bisa zoom / perbesar image
  • Bug pada Bandwith internet usage yang kadang bilang kartu opsel ga detected atau no sim card atau set new sim card, sehingga saat itu jika kita browsing internet, Bandwith Usage tidak naik.
  • Auto Network Switch ga jalan (ga auto ganti jika sinyal lemah/ga ada)
  • Jaminan Upgrade OS yang kurang diperhatikan oleh pembuat HP 
  • Tidak ada File Manager secara default, biarpun ada aplikasi nya


What's New in 1.4  :
  • Display brightness sudah fixed, sebelumnya ga bisa di set ke lowest (ntar auto balik ke medium brightness) 
  • Transition page sedikit lebih smooth 
  • Sinyal jadi lebih bagus, biasa 4 kotak, sekarang 5 kotak full terus 
  • Screen lock bisa di hapus 
  • Camera sebelumnya cuma bisa point n shoot, sekarang ada 3 feature tambahan (HDR, self timer, grid lines) 
  • Ada pilihan Disable APZ saat hold power button, ga tau apa itu...
What's New in 2.1:
  • Perubahaan design UI (interface), sekarang Homescreen sudah ga pake yang umum slide kiri-kanan(horizontal) , tapi scroll bawah-atas(vertikal). Dan ada semacam pembagian kategori, setiap kategori itu bisa di minimize. Terus jumlah kolom bisa dipilih antara 3 atau 4 icon kolom.
  • Bisa pake keyboard copy-paste app
  • Search Bar di atas homescreen yang sebelumnya hanya bisa untuk mencari app di market, sekarang sudah bisa untuk google search
What's New in 2.2:
  • The best version so far, tidak ada yang perlu dikomplain soal bug, sudah bisa copy - paste tanpa perlu keyboard app tambahan, dan bug di 1.3 hampir semuanya sudah di perbaiki.

Kesimpulan Akhir:
Firefox OS masih membutuhkan waktu untuk mature sebelum bersaing dengan OS lainnya , semoga di versi 2.2 keatas sudah menjadi sempurna (moga-moga penggabungan kestabilan 1.4 + kaya fitur nya 2.1). Biarpun di ciptakan untuk pasar mid sampai low end, tapi saya merasa masih ragu jika di HP nya di equip dengan spec yang terlalu rendah agar bisa tetap smooth tanpa lag. Setidaknya Firefox OS ini merupakan alternatif dari OS Android dan iOS yang sudah mulai menjemukan. Dengan gaya style yang lebih mirip ke orientasi Android dan homescreen sedikit gaya iOS (biarpun di 2.1 uda pake design sendiri), Firefox OS cocok untuk dijadikan secondary phone sementara ini yang menurut saya nantinya dimasa depan sudah dapat menjadi primary phone.
Pemasaran dan advertising Firefox yang sangat lambat , beserta upgrade OS yang kurang mendapat perhatian dari pembuat Firefox phone, semoga tidak menjadi kendala di masa depan.

Kesimpulan singkatnya, saya merekomendasikan Firefox OS buat yang sudah bosan dengan Android, BB, dan iOS.


Untuk informasi tambahan bisa ke: http://www.kaskus.co.id/thread/53bfa75b148b466a438b472f/firefox-os-lounge